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The DSpace digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material.2024-10-03T11:47:11ZSVEIRS Mathematical Model on Stability Analysis of HIV-1 Coronavirus COInfection
http://ir-library.kabianga.ac.ke/handle/123456789/891
SVEIRS Mathematical Model on Stability Analysis of HIV-1 Coronavirus COInfection
Pela, Cherono; Wesley, Kirui; Daniel, Adicka
Mathematical modeling has enabled epidemiologist to understand best the dynamics of infectious diseases,
their impact and future predictions on their transmission and existence. Deterministic Susceptible–
Vaccinated–Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SVEIR) model on HIV-1 Coronavirus co-infection was
formulated based on piecewise linear dynamical systems with constant delay. Delay here accounts for the
time lapse between exposure and when the symptoms of the disease appear. Basic reproduction number 𝑅𝑜 is
the threshold parameter on which the growth or reduction of the disease is based and calculated using Next
Generation Matrix approach. Disease Free Equilibrium is attained when reproduction number is less or equals
to one. The Disease Free Equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable whenever the reproductive number is
less or equal to one and unstable otherwise and it is showed using Lyapunov function. Numerical simulation
is performed using Matrix Laboratory (MatLab) dde23 solver to authenticate the analytic results. Graphical
representation is then done so as to highlight on future disease dynamics and interventions. Time-delay,
vaccination and chemotherapy plays a major role in stabilizing disease free equilibrium.
Article Journal om SVEIRS Mathematical Model on Stability
Analysis of HIV-1 Coronavirus COInfection
2024-05-04T00:00:00ZUnveiling the Path to Healthy Habits: The Effect of SchoolLed Total Sanitation Intervention on Sanitation and Hygiene Knowledge and Practices Among School-Going Children (Grade 4–7) in Baringo County, Kenya
http://ir-library.kabianga.ac.ke/handle/123456789/890
Unveiling the Path to Healthy Habits: The Effect of SchoolLed Total Sanitation Intervention on Sanitation and Hygiene Knowledge and Practices Among School-Going Children (Grade 4–7) in Baringo County, Kenya
Omari, Phanice Kerubo; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Mambo, Susan Njoki
Background: Poor hygiene and sanitation knowledge and practices pose serious health risks
to vulnerable populations, such as school-going children. Kenya is among the 26 countries
worldwide that account for 90% of open defecation. School-led total sanitation (SLTS) is a novel
intervention that has been successfully implemented in South African countries to improve
sanitation and hygiene outcomes among school-going children. Despite the intervention’s
success elsewhere, it has not been implemented in Kenya. The main aim of this study was to
assess SLTS’ effectiveness in improving sanitation and hygiene knowledge and practices among
school-going children in Baringo County.
Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted involving 434 pupils divided into
intervention and control groups across three schools in each study group. A six-month
intervention included triggering, forming health clubs, training sessions, and distributing
information, education, and information materials. Thereafter, an evaluation was performed 3
months post-intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS V18. The Chi-square test was used
to compare knowledge and practices in both groups, while the difference in differences (DID)
method assessed intervention effectiveness.
Results: Compared to the control group (15.2%), children in the intervention group (63.2%)
showed significantly high knowledge levels (χ2=104.67, df=1, P<0.0001). There was a 52.3%
mean increase in knowledge among children in the intervention group. A more considerable
number of pupils (85.6%) in the intervention schools washed their hands with soap compared to
65.5% (χ 2=23.57, df=1, P<0.0001) in the control group, demonstrating an increase of 19.6%.
In the intervention group, there was a significantly lower proportion of pupils who practiced
open defecation at home (16.3%) compared to 35.4% in the control group (χ 2=25.0, df=1,
P<0.0001).
Conclusion: The SLTS intervention led to an increase in knowledge on sanitation and hygiene but
a reduction in open defecation at home among school-going children. These findings revealed
that SLTS is an effective approach that can be adopted by regional governments, national
governments, and other stakeholders as an additional intervention to address the problem of
poor hygiene and sanitation in Kenya.
Article Research Journal on Unveiling the Path to Healthy Habits: The Effect of SchoolLed Total Sanitation Intervention on Sanitation and Hygiene
Knowledge and Practices Among School-Going Children
(Grade 4–7) in Baringo County, Kenya
2024-03-30T00:00:00ZNumerical Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Incompressible Fluid Flow by Crank-Nicolson Implicit Scheme
http://ir-library.kabianga.ac.ke/handle/123456789/889
Numerical Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Incompressible Fluid Flow by Crank-Nicolson Implicit Scheme
Siele, Charles; Rotich, John; Adicka, Daniel
The Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations for incompressible fluid flow comprise of a system of four nonlinear equations
with five flow fields such as pressure P, density ρ and three velocity components u, v, and w. The system of equations is generally
complex due to the fact that it is nonlinear and a mixture of the three classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) each with
distinct solution methods. The N-S equations fully describe the unsteady fluid flow behaviour of laminar and turbulent types.
Previous studies have shown existence of general solutions of fluid flow models but little has been done on numerical solution for
velocity of flow in N-S equation of incompressible fluid flow by Crank-Nicolson implicit scheme. In practice, real fluid flows are
compressible due to the inevitable variations in density caused by temperature changes and other physical factors. Numerical
approximations of the general system of Navier-Stokes equations were made to develop numerical solution model for
incompressible fluid flow. Adequate solutions of the latter produce numerical solutions applicable in numerical simulation of fluid
flows useful in engineering and science. Non-dimensionalization of variables involved was done. Crank-Nicolson (C.N) implicit
scheme was implemented to discretize partial derivatives and appropriate approximation made at the boundaries yielded a linear
system of N-S equations model. The linear numerical system was then expressed in matrix form for computation of velocity field by
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach using MATLAB software. Numerical results for velocity field in two dimensional
space, u(x,y,t) and v(x,y,t) generated in uniform 32×32 grids points of the square flow domains, 0≤x≤1.0 and 0≤y≤1.0 were
presented in three dimensional figures. Results showed that the velocity in two dimensional space does not change suddenly for any
change in spatial levels, x and y. Therefore, C-N implicit Scheme applied to solve the N-S equations for fluid flow is consistent.
Article Journal on Numerical Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations for
Incompressible Fluid Flow by Crank-Nicolson Implicit
Scheme
2021-03-12T00:00:00ZSimultaneous 10 Gbps data and clock transmission for smart power grid application utilizing the optical fibre and VCSEL technology
http://ir-library.kabianga.ac.ke/handle/123456789/888
Simultaneous 10 Gbps data and clock transmission for smart power grid application utilizing the optical fibre and VCSEL technology
Aradi, H. E.; Kipnoo, E. K. Rotich; Masinde, F. W.; Waswa, D. W.; Jena, J.; Gibbon, T. B.
The study seeks to design a communication system for a power grid, that will ensure real-time and
low-latency communication and automation between the utility and the end users. The performance
characterization of the VCSEL in G.655 non-zero dispersion shifted fibre transmitting at 1550 nm is
experimentally and theoretically analysed. The experiment reported the various evaluations of BER
and eye diagrams using a VCSEL and a DFB laser as light sources. There was the successful achievement of 10 Gbps in 25 and 50 km for VCSEL and DFB respectively. In simultaneous data and clock
transmission, 0.4 GHz and 10 Gbps over 25 km was successfully achieved using a VCSEL. The study
is significant in the establishment of a pervasive communication system as the backbone of smart
power grid design technology.
Article Journal on Simultaneous 10 Gbps data and clock transmission
for smart power grid application utilizing the
optical fibre and VCSEL technology
2024-07-23T00:00:00Z